Our Blog...Thoughts & opinions from the Old Gaol

The pubs of old buckingham (part 1)

Did someone say 'Pub Crawl'...?!

 Many new-comers and visitors to Buckingham remark on how cheerful and friendly the people are. We at The Old Gaol think we may know the reason as to why – the town and surrounding area had (and continues to have) an abundance of public houses!

On May 2nd we will host the first of our Historic Pub Crawls of Buckingham. But prior to this we’ll explore some important differences between drinking establishments of old…

Inns & Hostels - in medieval times, religious establishments were charged to entertain and lodge travellers and pilgrims, which they did within their own premises. As the numbers of travellers increased, however, it was found to be preferable to house them in separate premises outside the gates – and the first inns came about. These were still run by the churches and monasteries but, as the influence of the church slowly declined, the control of the inns moved into the hands of the laity. These were inns and hostels and, although they primarily catered for travellers, they would supply drink to anyone.

Taverns – quite distinct from inns and hostels, these were originally kept by vintners, later referred to as taverners, who sold wine to their customers. One of these is known to have existed opposite St John’s Chapel as early as 1473.

Alehouses – these were another variation which only sold ale. Alehouses have been in existence for over a thousand years, and were thought to have been introduced to this country by the Saxons. It was the custom to display an evergreen bush on the end of a projecting pole whenever a fresh brew of ale was available, and these were the origin of the pub signs we know today. One of the earliest alehouses in Buckingham was actually called The Bush, in1636 in West Street.

In 1577 an Order in Council was made for a return of all licenced premises in England, with a view to taxing them to help finance repairs to Dover Harbour. From this return, we know that in that year there Buckingham had one innkeeper-vintner, two other innkeepers, and eleven alehouse keepers.

Buckingham’s Brewers

In Buckingham, the pioneer of brewing was Thomas Stutchbury, whose premises were in the north-east of the town, where the Masonic House former surgery stands. 

The Swan Brewery – the buildings in School Lane were owned by the 2nd Duke of Buckingham who, from 1842, leased them to a succession of brewers. The first was Alfred Redden of The Rising Sun in Nelson Street. By 1853 the building was being used by Revill and Thorne, brewers and maltsters. The premises were then rebuilt and leased to James Bacon for £60 a year for 10 years. At this time, Mr Bacon rented eight other inns in Buckingham and the surrounding villages from the Duke.

In 1863 the Duke leased the brewery and all eight inns to Edward Terry, a brewer from Aylesbury. This was given to his son John in1871 who ran it until 1886. Brewing continued here for only a short while longer under Higgens and Swain & subsequently the Aylesbury Brewing Company until brewing ceased in the 1890’s.

Some of the earliest “watering holes”

The Woolpack and the Mitre are two names you are likely to be familiar with as both are still viable public houses and both with rich histories dating back hundreds of years. 

But what of the Colliflower, The Bell, The Dog and The Fleece?

These are just a small number of the lost pubs of the town which date back in some instances to the early 1500’s. There is much to tell about these establishments, but for that you will need to join us on May 2nd. 

Tickets available now at £7 from the Tourist Information Centre and the Old Gaol.

Stay tuned for a second blog on Buckingham pubs from the 18th Century, and please, if you have any further information about those listed above, do please let us know via info@buckinghamoldgaol.org.uk

By Mike Smith - Trustee, Buckingham Old Gaol Museum Trust


New year, new opportunities!

Happy New Year!

We begin the year with a sense of huge excitement - The close of 2018 saw us increase the size of our trust board with the on-boarding of two new heads in the form of Danielle Little and Lauren Hutton.  The skills, energy and expertise that these new trustees bring will be instrumental in the efforts of the Old Gaol Museum Trust as we move forward in 2019.

2018 was a hugely successful year for us, with the many free events and children's activities drawing record numbers.  Expect to see the wonderful owl's to make a return in 2019 and look out for another series of Ghost Walks around Buckingham as well as a host of new initiatives.

Our resident historian, Ed, continues to sniff out fascinating tales of crime and punishment across the town and county and we will be publishing stories of incarceration in the Gaol more frequently as well as making a lasting legacy within the museum to celebrate Ed's great work on this topic.

Our exhibitions raised the bar in 2018 and we carry this momentum into 2019.  From February, look out for 'Mighty Women', a celebration of the lives and work of women and girls from Buckingham and surrounding areas, throughout history, and the present day.

This is followed by a focus on Buckingham's Medieval history with a particular focus on the 100 Years War and the efforts of ordinary men from the town and villages in the French Campaigns of the 13 and 14th Centuries.

The Trust and Friends wish all of our visitors and supporters a very happy and successful new year.


The river

'Calling Buckingham, Hullo Everybody' is the cry from this 1936 commemorative poster of the national 'All England' Angling Championship of 1936.

It was won by Buckingham Councillor, A.E.Bryant, famed in the town not just for his duties on the council, but as a farmer of the best and most effective maggots for fishing!  So, the best angler in the country heralded from this town, and, where were these fishing skills finely tuned and developed? On the marvellous and most breathtaking Buckingham stretch of the River Great Ouse of course - An ecosystem so rich in bio-diversity that it has been the  wonder of people living in its vicinity for millennia.

The events of last week are an appalling catastrophe.  There is no life in the river any more.  The Chub, the Dace, the Pike and the Brown Trout are all gone. The much maligned American Signal Crayfish gone too. And this, just the tip of the iceberg with the Environment Agency confirming that Invertebrate impact is also very pronounced.  There is a curious quiet along the river now...no Lacewings or Dragonflies dipping and darting. No Kingfishers seeking their prey.  No fry for the children to catch in nets, and to grow into the coming years breeding stocks.  An appalling catastrophe.

The River has been the lifeblood for Buckingham throughout history.  Just yesterday I picked up a Mesolithic flint from its banks, signs of fishing here 11,000 years ago. And whilst we may not rely on the river for food and transport any longer, there is a very clear reliance on its quiet calm and nature from an amenity and well-being perspective...The river was mine and many others escape, calm and joy.

So let us issue that 1936 rallying cry once more...'Calling Buckingham, Hullo Everybody'.  Do not forget this episode.  Do not let the death and destruction of our river fade into memory.  There is a justice to be served here, and one which will require the community to lead its charge.  The recovery of the river is imperitive.

Hare today, gone tomorrow


In the 1840s a third of prisoners in Buckingham’s Old Gaol were locals, locked up for poaching!

In Victorian days, game was protected and to kill it you needed a Game Licence. These were only given to the rich - those with houses worth more than £100 - or to people who had inherited rank or a title e.g. sons of knights. Poor people were doubly condemned. The Game Laws meant that they could be prosecuted for trespassing and poaching game, even on their own land! They could then also be punished for not holding a Game Licence. 

In many parts of England these Game Laws were not enforced, as liberal opinion was that they were too severe, and many people felt that they were open to abuse by landowners and the wealthy. 

North Bucks however remained isolated – a place where double jeopardy (being tried twice for the same, or similar offences) remained the practice into the 1840s. 

Poor families often faced ruin as, after paying poaching fines to obtain release of their relatives from Gaol, upon release, these men would then be re-arrested and sent back to Gaol for not having a Game Licence! 

This would mean another fine and with their family’s resources already exhausted, many families lost their men, their homes, and their livelihoods. 

Chartists, supported by magazines such as Punch, led the battle for fairer treatment for poaching offenders. Here is a satirical poem written, probably in 1844:


from Douglas Jerrold’s Shilling Magazine

Yesterday, at the Sessions held in Buckingham

The Rev. Simon Shutwood, famed for tucking ham

And capon into his anointed man,

Gravely discuss’d a deadly breach of law,

And then committed to the Borough Gaol

(After a patient hearing) William Flail:

For that he, Flail, one day last week,

Was seen maliciously to sneak

And bend his body by the fence

Of his own garden, and from thence

Abstract, out of a noose, a hare,

Which he unlawfully found there,

Against the peace, (as may be seen

In Burn and Blackstone) of the Queen.

He, questioned thereupon, in short,

Could give no better reason for’t

Than his little boys and he

Did often in the mornings see

Said hare, and sundry other hares,

Nibbling on certain herbs of theirs.

Teddy, the seventh of the boys,

Counted twelve rows, fine young savoys, 

Bit to the ground by them and out

Of ne’er a plant a leaf to sprout:

And Sam, the youngest lad, did think

He saw a couple at a pink.

“Come!” cried the Reverend, “Come, confess!”

Flail answered, I will do no less,

Puss we did catch; puss we did eat :

It was her turn to give he treat.

Not overmuch was there for eight of us

With a half-gallon o’potatoes:

Eight; for our dear Prue lay sick abed

And poor dear Bessy with the dead.”

“We cannot listen to such idle words,”

The Reverend cried: “The hares are all our Lord’s.

Have you no more, my honest friend to say

Why we should not commit you, and straightway?”

Whereat Will Flail

Grew deadly pale,

And cried, “If you are so severe on me,

An ignorant man, and poor as poor can be,

O Mister Shutwood, what would you have done

If you had caught God’s blessed only Son,

When he broke off (in a land not His they say)

That ear of barley on the Sabbath day?

Sweet Jesus! In the prison He had died

And never for our sins been crucified.”

“Constable! Take that man downstairs,

He quotes the Scripture and eats hares.”

With thanks to Ed Grimsdale, Hon. Historian at the Buckingham Old Gaol


Execution, Violence & Vandalism - The bloody siege of Hillesden - March 1643

Nestled in a quiet corner of North Buckinghsmshire, a couple of miles from the old county town lies the hamlet of Hillesden.  It is a windy and exposed spot and a hamlet made up of intriguing names; The Barracks, The Orchard and Church End. These names give clues to the history of the site and the landscape is littered with the scars of habitation and conflict.  Conflict which almost 400 years ago to the day was raging.

Hillesdens history spans millenia.  In fact many of the Old Gaol's most important Anglo-Saxon Artefacts are from this area.  However Hillesden is probably best remembered for its role in the Civil War of 1642-1646 where the settlement (and in particular the manor; Denton House) was besieged by none other than Oliver Cromwell himself.


Lying almost midway between the strategic cities of Oxford and Newport (Pagnell), King Charles I had secured Hillesden and fortified Denton House in a bid to support operations in Newport which had recently been lost to Parliamentarian forces.  Hillesden too had been occupied prior by Parliamentary forces but was recaptured early in 1643.

The Denton family had lived in Hillesden for over 200 years prior to the conflict and were firm supporters of the Royalist cause.  Another wealthy local family, the Verney's were also of this persuasion and in late February of 1643 the manor house and village was occupied by the Royal Garrison and members of the Denton and Verney family.  Records suggest that Sir Alexander Denton had returned to Hillesden to move his family such was the concern of imminent conflict, however, the speed of the Parliamentary reaction was unforseen and on March 3rd a force of over 2,000 soldiers led by Cromwell and Samuel Luke arrived in the vicinity of Hillesden.


Just before 9am on March 4th, Cromwell and Lukes army presented itself at Hillesden.  The defences (a hastily dug  and incomplete ditch and gun platform) were quickly overrun and the defenders retreated to the manor and church.  In a second assault, the church was captured, and Col. Smith, head of the defending Royalists surrendered on the promise of a quarter.

This agreement was short lived however.  Having made prisoners of the important and wealthy defenders (Smith, Denton and Officers) the promise of mercy was violated and 31 Royalist men at arms were executed in the Churchyard where they remain buried to this day.

The House was looted and on March 5th on rumour of an advancing Kings army, was burned to the ground.  The Church was also witness to much vandalsim and violence.  Effigies were smashed, the stained glass windows shattered and the occupants of the village left in a 'beggared condition'.

The above blog is but a brief snapshot of a flash point in the Civil War and an important chapter of our local history.

Visit the museum to see cannon ball, musket shot and other exciting artefacts from the battlefield.

Visit Hillesden to see the door of Denton Manor riddled with musket shot holes (now the door to the Church), the broken tombs of the Dentons and the curious windows whereby the upper levels maintain the medieval stained glass, but the lower sections are replaced with clear glass - Witness to the height of the Pikes used by Cromwell's men to shatter the peace of this quiet rural village.

Buckinghamshire, the Indian Army and the First World War: a forgotten history?

Dr Priya Atwal, University of Oxford

For many, a mention of “the First World War” immediately conjures up images of young and perhaps wounded British soldiers engaging in brutal combat across the blood-soaked, muddy trenches of France and Flanders. Increasing attention has also recently been given to the presence and contributions of soldiers and labourers from other parts of the world in the battles of the Western Front, particularly men from the Indian subcontinent (today constituting India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) and other countries that formed part of Britain’s vast empire in the twentieth century.

However, what is often still lacking in our understanding of this period of history, is just how wide-reaching its local and global connections were. In fact, between 1914 and 1918, men from the neighbouring counties of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire were thrown together with South Asian soldiers into the crucible of war in more far- flung arenas than Ypres or Passchendaele – in Iraqi towns instead. Over half a million Indians would serve in Mesopotamia during the war years (as Iraq was known then),

out-numbering their British counterparts in the region at least three times over.

Such large numbers can be difficult for our imaginations to grapple with. The new, free mini-exhibition at the Old Gaol Museum enables visitors to get a sense of the war as experienced by ordinary people, having been designed by a dedicated group of British Asian volunteers, together with historians and heritage consultants from the University of Oxford, to tell the tales of fascinating individuals whose lives were transformed by the conflict. 

One cannot help but admire Basant Kaur, the young war widow who unexpectedly became the head of her family after her husband was killed in Basra; or fail to be moved by the tale of Mahomed Ali, the Muslim storekeeper who fell in love with a young Catholic girl in war-torn Iraq.

The exhibition also highlights the longstanding imperial and military connection between Buckinghamshire and India, revealing new insights into the somewhat forgotten history of the presence of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry in South Asia in the decades leading up to the First World War. 

The stories told in the display are only part of a growing picture however. The other aim of the exhibition is to get more people thinking about how their ancestors might have been impacted by the First World War, or even for an earlier period, how service in the ‘Ox and Bucks’ regiment might have led to them spending time in British India. 

If you have such a story to share, you are welcome to get in touch with the exhibition’s research team by email at sofoindianarmy@gmail.com. Any such contributions are warmly appreciated, as part of this important ongoing endeavour to broaden and enrich our understanding of people’s multi-faceted experiences of the Great War.


A Victorian Royal Christmas

One of the treasures of Buckingham Old Gaol Museum is a shawl crocheted by Queen Victoria; it has her initials sewn into the corner. It is now fully restored and on display in the Flora Thompson Room.   1837 was Queen Victoria’s first Christmas as Sovereign, and she spent it at Buckingham Palace. Victoria noted in her diary that she received a pair of slippers, a box for pens and paper, a sable muff, a silver lamp, a bracelet and a pin. She attended midnight service in the Chapel but found the Bishop of London’s sermon “very severe and harsh”.  

 (Photograph of the dining room at Osborne House, Christmas 1873. Royal Collection, RCIN2103818)

By December 1846, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had 5 children (and was pregnant with her sixth). Eleanor Stanley, her Lady in Waiting, wrote that, “Round the tree were all our presents with the name of each person, written by the Queen... The children had each a little table with their new toys, and were running about in great glee showing them off; Prince Alfred…was shooting us all with his new gun, and Princess Alice was making us admire her dolls. "

However, the death of Prince Albert in December 1861, made future Christmases a sad time for the Queen. On 24 December 1864 she wrote in her diary; “Again this festive time has returned, which we used to celebrate so gladly and brightly.” Her gifts that year included drawings by her children and ‘a large blotting book’ from her youngest daughter Beatrice (aged 7), but Queen Victoria was tired and depressed and wrote how she missed the happy, gay, blessed times with dear Albert.  


In December 1890 Victoria was 71 years old and spent Christmas at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. On 24 December, despite it being a cold, frosty day, she drove out in her carriage with her daughters Beatrice and Vicky and then went into the Durbar Room to see her many children, grandchildren and great grandchildren. Several members of her family had ‘clubbed together’ to buy her a copy of the Holbein painting of Queen Anne of Cleves (wife of Henry VIII) which Victoria noted in her diary was both “valuable and interesting."

There was one person missing at the 1890 Christmas celebrations; Prince George (who in 1910 would become King George V), was serving in the Royal Navy in Bermuda. In his diary for 25 December 1890 he noted that he had lunch with the Admiral, and in the evening played games, whist, and sang songs with his hosts. On 31 December he wrote, “Good bye old 1890. Wish I was at home; thought of all those darlings I love best.”   

Extracts for this blog taken from the book A Royal Christmas by Jeremy Archer (2012) 

Photograph left, Courtesy of Miranda Winnett, December 10th 2017

The end of summer & new beginnings...

31st October, commonly known as Halloween, is also remembered by some as Samhain; The ancient Celtic festival marking the end of one year and the beginning of the next.  It was believed that at this time of year, the veil between the living worlds and those of the dead was at its thinnest, that the spirits of ancestors were at their closest and that this should therefore be a time for remembrance, celebration and preparation for the long, dark winter ahead.

Looking around it is easy to see why our ancestors chose this time as one of closure and the start of new beginnings.  With the harvest completed and nature transitioning into its dormant state, the shortening of the days and the onset of cold, we are rewarded with some astonishing displays within the natural world.

A walk up Stowe Avenue on these crisp, fresh mornings highlights this to very good effect. Equally, the slow ebb of the River running through the old town provides a natural rhythm and literal reflection on the surrounding world. Autumn in Buckingham is beautiful.

And as the children enjoy the mischief of Halloween, and the bonfires burn on November 5th, consider that while these practices have more modern links to history, that actually both link squarely back to our Celtic past and that it is no coincidence of their timing. 

At the Old Gaol, we too are celebrating old endings and new beginnings. Accepting that some doors have closed while we make way for better things.

The natural world is key in this transition. Winter is coming. But it is a joy to behold. 

November 2017


Get out of the rain!

Yet again, the August weather fails to surprise with another display of endless rain and wind across Buckingham!  But what more should we expect for the summer holidays?!

Thankfully, at the Buckingham Old Gaol we have a huge array of summer activities - Indoor - designed to entertain and engage minds from all ages.

The Friends of the Old Gaol have created a series of activities for Children, all linked to the fascinating past of the town and our summer 'Treasures from the Soil' exhibition. Learn about Buckingham's Anglo Saxon monier and design your own coin, dig in the sand and see what artefacts lie beneath, and create your own fabulous mosaic.  Loads more to do and only for a 50p supplement to our usual children's admission.

Our 'Treasures from the Soil' exhibition focuses squarely on the amazing array of objects found in the immediate locality.  In pride of place we have on display an incredible Iron Age Tankard, on loan from the British Museum no less.  The tankard is huge and showcases the skill of Iron Age metalworking in Buckingham over 2,000 years ago.  You will also get to see artefacts dating from the early stone age (the Palaeolithic), through the Dark-Ages, Medieval and Tudor periods.  Buckingham has an incredible history...what lies beneath the soil of your own garden...?  Come and talk to us and find out more...

August 2017

(The stunning photograph of the Old gaol below was captured by local photographer Michael Peter Lake)


Accreditation, Saxon Silver & 50,000 steps....!

It has been an incredibly busy and exciting start to the summer for the team at the Old Gaol, and in turn the community at large.

We begin by celebrating our award as an Arts Council of England Accredited Museum.  This ranking puts us on a par with the likes of the British Museum as it ensures that we maintain a nationally agreed set of standards regarding management, curation and care of exhibits as well as the services we offer to the public. We are delighted with this recognition and invite you to come and share in our success by making a visit and seeing our remarkable exhibits and collections.

The museum also eagerly anticipates the arrival of its share of the Saxon coins from the now globally famous 'Lenborough Hoard' which we will display with great pride.  Special thanks must be extended to the people of the town who contributed so generously to the fundraising activities of 2016...Your efforts and support paid off as this unique discovery, local to this area, is now secured as one for the future.

Finally, we took great pride in supporting the Maids Moreton Archaeological Group in preparation for the summer excavations.  Our trustees and members learned a great deal about geophysics and the raw power of the sun as they paced a field for 4 days in +25 degree heat collecting data to determine where this years excavation efforts should be focused. 

With an exciting range of summer activities and events planned, come along and see us to learn and experience the rich history of this town, and how you might be able to help us do more...

June 2017